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In the end the problem was because of a misconfiguration that was not appropriate for my topology. I will therefore first describe my topology and the original configuration.

I have a 4-servers farm with 2 WFEs and 2 Apps servers. The SharePoint Incoming Mails service is provisioned on both Apps servers. One of the Apps servers runs the Windows SMTP Service.

This is necessary to understand the problem. If configured correctly, then when a mail is sent to Exchange, Exchange routes the mail to the SMTP Server that is specified in Central Admin’s Incoming Mails configuration. This ends up in the Drop folder of the SMTP Service on this server. A SharePoint timer job, namely Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Incoming E-Mail, monitors this folder and processes mails that are delivered to this folder. This timer job is responsible for creating items in your lists/libraries and removing processed mails from the Drop folder. This timer job is scheduled on all servers where the SharePoint Incoming Mails service is provisioned. It is scheduled to run every 1 minute by default.